WARNING: If you already have an ear infection, or if you have ever had a perforated or otherwise injured eardrum, or ear surgery, you should consult an ear, nose, and throat specialist before you go swimming and before you use any type of eardrops. If you do not know whether you have or ever had a perforated, punctured, ruptured, or otherwise injured eardrum, ask your ear doctor.
Causes of Swimmer’s Ear
Swimmer’s ear is an infection of the outer ear structures. It typically occurs in swimmers, but since the cause of the infection is water trapped in the ear canal, bathing or showering may also cause this common infection. When water is trapped in the ear canal, bacteria that normally inhabit the skin and ear canal multiply, causing infection and irritation. If the infection progresses it may involve the outer ear.
Swimmer’s Ear Symptoms
The most common symptoms of swimmer’s ear are mild to moderate pain that is aggravated by tugging on the auricle, and an itchy ear. Other symptoms may include any of the following:
- Sensation that the ear is blocked or full
- Drainage from the ear
- Decreased hearing
- Intense pain that may radiate to the neck, face, or side of the head
- The outer ear may appear to be pushed forward or away from the skull
- Swollen lymph nodes
Treatment of Swimmer’s Ear
Treatment for the early stages of swimmer’s ear includes careful cleaning of the ear canal and eardrops that inhibit bacterial growth. Mild acid solutions such as boric or acetic acid are effective for early infections.
For more severe infections, if you do not have a perforated eardrum, antibiotics may be required. If the ear canal is swollen shut, a sponge or wick may be used so the antibiotic drops will be effective. Pain medication may also be prescribed.
Follow-up appointments with your physician are very important to monitor progress of the infection, clean the ear, and replace the ear wick as needed. Your otologist has specialized equipment and expertise to effectively clean the ear canal and treat swimmer’s ear.
Prevention of Swimmer’s Ear
A dry ear is unlikely to become infected, so it is important to keep the ears free of moisture after swimming or bathing. Removable earplugs, sometimes worn for hearing protection, can be used to keep moisture out of the ear canal. Q-tips should not be used for this purpose, because they may pack material deeper into the ear canal, remove protective earwax, and irritate the thin skin of the ear canal, creating the perfect environment for infection.
The safest way to dry your ears is with a hair dryer. If you do not have a perforated eardrum, rubbing alcohol or a 50:50 mixture of alcohol and vinegar used as eardrops will evaporate excess water and keep your ears dry.
Before using any drops in the ear, it is important to verify that you do not have a perforated eardrum. Check with your ear doctor if you have ever had a perforated, punctured, or injured eardrum, or if you have had ear surgery.
People with itchy ears, flaky or scaly ears, or extensive earwax are more likely to develop swimmer’s ear. If so, it may be helpful to have your ears cleaned periodically by an otologist.